۱۳۸۷ دی ۱۱, چهارشنبه

۱۳۸۷ آذر ۲۶, سه‌شنبه

The Veterinary Formulary


The sixth edition of The Veterinary Formulary has been updated and revised by 51 expert contributors and reviewed by an advisory committee of veterinarians and pharmacologists. Features of this edition include: Revision of over 780 drug monographs from the fifth edition Some 55 new drug monographs Over 1650 UK veterinary preparations Preparation and dosage details for over 700 human-authorised products Existing sections re-arranged to reflect current veterinary practice Many new sections, eg Prescribing for rabbits, Canine pheromonatherapy, and Teat sealants New table giving husbandry requirements for common pet terrestrial invertebrates Revised BVA code of practice on medicines - includes essential legislation and information New easy-to-read appendix on Drug interactions



IV Drug Handbook


Administer I.V. medications knowledgeably, safely and confidentlyBecause there's no room for error, turn to McGraw-Hill's I.V. Drug Handbook. Featuring a strong focus on patient safety, administering and monitoring I.V. drugs, the Handbook delivers concise, practical guidance to help you carry out one of the most difficult tasks you face. Written by and for practicing nurses and pharmacists, the Handbook is reliable, comprehensive, and easy-to-use.Everything you need for safe, successful I.V. drug administration:* All-inclusive coverage of over 350 parenteral drugs with the latest warnings from the FDA* Includes antibiotics, insulin, pain medications, emergency drugs -- and more coverage of chemotherapeutic agents with more supportive therapies than you'll find in any other text* Provides the most comprehensive, specific, evidence-based guidelines on administering high-alert and hazardous drugs available anywhere* Each drug monograph includes administration guidelines, covering preparation, dilution & compatibility, infusion rates, admixtures, supportive therapies and monitoring.* Features a 32 page full-color patient safety insert describing measures for ensuring safe drug administration, including 6 pagea on inserting an I.V. catheter* Uses distinctive icons to call your attention to “clinical alerts,” “life-threatening reactions,” “high-alert”, “hazardous” drugs, and more

'پدر واکسن ایران' درگذشت


دکتر حسین میرشمسی، که به پدر واکسن ایران مشهور است ، شنبه بیست و سوم آذر در سن ۹۲ سالگی در تهران درگذشت.
محمد حسین دلیمی، رئیس موسسه سرم سازی رازی به ایرنا، خبرگزاری رسمی جمهوری اسلامی گفته است که آقای میرشمسی علیرغم بازنشستگی و کهولت سن کماکان با این موسسه و موسسات علمی جهان و سازمان بهداشت جهانی همکاری علمی و پژوهشی خود را قطع نکرده بود.
دکتر میرشمسی به دلیل تلاش برای تولید واکسن های دامی، واکسن و سرم دیفتری، کزاز، سیاه سرفه و همچنین تولید واکسن برای بیماری های ویروسی سرخک، فلج اطفال، سرخجه و اوریون و انتقال دانش فنی ساخت این واکسن ها به ایران پدر واکسن این کشور خوانده می شود.
او در سال ۱۲۹۵ در اصفهان به دنیا آمد و تا پایان دبیرستان در همان شهر تحصیل کرد و سپس وارد دانشگاه تهران شد و مدرک دکترای دامپزشکی گرفت.
دکتر میرشمسی پس از مدتی کار در موسسه سرم سازی رازی، برای ادامه تحصیل به فرانسه رفت و از انیستیتو پاستور پاریس دیپلم تخصصی در رشته میکروب شناسی، ایمنی شناسی و سرم شناسی و از دانشگاه پاریس دکترای دامپزشکی گرفت.
او چند سال پس از این دو مدرک ویروس شناسی خود را از مؤسسات تحقیقاتی لندن و نیویورک دریافت کرد.
دکتر میرشمسی در این زمان پس از بازگشت به ایران معاون واحد تولید واکسن های مصرف پزشکی انستیتو رازی شد.
آقای میرشمسی نشان درجه یک پژوهش را از دولت ایران دریافت کرده بود و در سال های اخیر به عنوان یکی از "چهره های ماندگار" این کشور انتخاب شده بود.

۱۳۸۷ آذر ۲۳, شنبه

Chemistry for Pharmacy Students: General, Organic and Natural Product Chemistry



Chemistry for Pharmacy Students is a student-friendly introduction to the key areas of chemistry required by all pharmacy and pharmaceutical science students. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the various areas of general, organic and natural products chemistry (in relation to drug molecules).
Clearly structured to enhance student understanding, the book is divided into six clear sections. The book opens with an overview of general aspects of chemistry and their importance to modern life, with particular emphasis on medicinal applications. The text then moves on to a discussion of the concepts of atomic structure and bonding and the fundamentals of stereochemistry and their significance to pharmacy- in relation to drug action and toxicity. Various aspects of aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic chemistry and their pharmaceutical importance are then covered with final chapters looking at organic reactions and their applications to drug discovery and development and natural products chemistry.
accessible introduction to the key areas of chemistry required for all pharmacy degree courses
student-friendly and written at a level suitable for non-chemistry students
includes learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter
focuses on the physical properties and actions of drug molecules

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۱۳۸۷ آذر ۲۰, چهارشنبه

Molecular and Cellular Signaling (Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering)


The text is aimed at a broad audience of students and other individuals interested in furthering their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities. Malfunction in the control layer is responsible for a host of human disorders ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. This book will be useful to students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how the control layer works. To further that goal, there are chapters on cancers and apoptosis, and on bacteria and viruses. In those chapters not specifically devoted to pathogens, connections between diseases, drugs and signaling are made.The audience for this book includes students in chemistry, physics and computer science who intend to work in biological and medical physics, and bioinformatics and systems biology. The first five chapters of the book are mainly background and review chapters. Signaling in the immune, endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems is covered along with cancer, apoptosis and gene regulation.About the AuthorMartin Beckerman, Ph.D. is Senior Scientist at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration’s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN. Prior to assuming his current position at the Y-12 NSC, Dr. Beckerman held teaching and research positions at the Weizmann Institute of Science, the University of Rochester, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Tennessee and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He has over 130 publications, 1400 citations, and is the author of a previously published book entitled Adaptive Cooperative Systems.

Facilities Management Handbook, Third Edition


The world of facilities management has changed dramatically in recent years. From humble beginnings it is now a fully-fledged professional discipline cover a wide range of challenging roles that go right to the heart of business success.The Facilities Management Handbook gives a complete and comprehensive guide to the different aspects of the Facility Manager's role, from compliance with health and safety law through risk management to getting the most out of buildings and space.The Handbook provides checklists and practical guidance that ensures that the Facilities Manager can meet the increasingly complex demands of their profession.* Wealth of information available in an easily accessible and readable format* Enables managers to keep abreast of all key facts required in the day-to-day running of a business* Offers a concise encyclopedia on all facilities management issues, combining best practice tips with proactive legal advice.

۱۳۸۷ آذر ۱۹, سه‌شنبه

تقلب علمی در ایران

امروز به مطلب جالبی در مورد کپی برداری و تقلب علمی برخوردم. خودتان این گزارش را بشنوید:
رواج تقلب های علمی در ایران چه میزان است؟


*" در آنجائی که بودجه برای تحقیق وجود نداشته باشد اما در عین حال برای بالا بردن رتبه علمی یک پژوهشگر ، اجباری است که مقاله ای در مطبوعات بین المللی منتشر شود ، خوب این مسئله – یعنی تقلب علمی – پیش می آید.
اخیراً مدیر کل امور پژوهشی وزارت علوم جزئیات نحوه برخورد این وزارتخانه با تقلب های علمی در نشریات داخلی و خارجی را تشریح کرد و گفت که آخرین مجازات در نظر گرفته شده برای این افراد اخراج از دانشگاه است.
بنظر می رسد که این واکنش وزارت علوم ، ثمره بحث هائی باشد که اخیراً با انتشار گزارشی در نشریه معروف " نیچر " درباره تقلب در مقالات علمی در مطبوعات ایران در گرفته است. گزارش نیچر متکی به اخبار منتشر شده از سوی یک پایگاه اطلاعاتی بین المللی است بنام déjà vu که عرصه فعالیتش شناسائی مطالبی است که از منابع قبلاً چاپ شده کپی برداری شده اند.
Déjà vuیک اصطلاح فرانسوی است بمعنای " قبلاً دیده شده " و این پایگاه اطلاعاتی با این نام به کشف تقلب ها و کپی برداری ها می پردازد. آخرین گزارش منتشر شده از سوی سازمان déjà vu که نام صد و هشتاد مقاله متقلبانه را در بر میگیرد ، نشان می دهد که بیست و دو مورد این تعداد ،مقالات علمی پژوهشگران ایرانی بوده اند.
لینک صوتی گزارش

۱۳۸۷ آذر ۱۴, پنجشنبه

Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, 35th Edition 2 Volume Set




Martindale's Complete Drug Reference is the foremost source for medicines information worldwide and also includes details on herbal medicines.
Martindale's Complete Drug Reference provides reliable, unbiased and independently evaluated information on drugs and medicines used throughout the world—no other source has this breadth and depth of coverage.
In addition to encyclopedic information on drugs used clinically, it also includes veterinary and investigational drugs, other compounds used in medicine, pharmaceutical excipients, herbal medicines, toxic substances, and more.
Martindale The Complete Drug Reference 35th edition includes:
Encyclopaedic facts about drugs and medicines
5,500 drug monographs
128,000 preparations
40,700 reference citations
10,900 manufacturers
Synopses of disease treatments
Enables identification of medicines, the local equivalent and the manufacturer
Includes herbals, diagnostic agents, radiopharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical excipients, toxins, and poisons as well as drugs and medicines
Based on published information and extensively referenced
New for the thirty-fifth edition:
Chapters reorganized to better reflect the clinical use of drugs
International Nonproprietary Names now in English, French, Latin, Russian and Spanish
Increase in synonyms from Scandinavia, Baltic and Eastern European areas
Increased coverage of 'street names' for drugs and substances liable to abuse
Indication of drugs restricted or banned by sports authorities
Molecular structural formulae included for selected drugs
Coverage of proprietary preparations expanded to 36 countries, now including Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia and Venezuela
The book is arranged in three main sections plus a comprehensive general index:
Chapters containing monographs on drugs and ancillary substances and disease treatment reviews
Proprietary and non-proprietary preparations
Manufacturers' names and contact details
Features of the CD-ROMs search interface include:
Flexible search functions or browsable contents list
Hyperlinks between related documents
Hyperlinks to relevant internet sites
On-screen help
The information about drugs and diseases is arranged into chapters that bring together drugs with similar uses or actions plus a supplemetary list of miscellaneous drugs, herbals, and toxic substances. In addition, the electronic version includes an archive of abbreviated monographs for substances that are no longer in use nor of general interest and which have been deleted from the printed edition.
Drug monographs Monographs are divided into sections covering different aspects of the properties and actions of the substance. These would typically include Nomenclature, Adverse Effects, Treatment of Adverse Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Pharmacokinetics, and Uses and Administration (in that order). Each section usually starts with a summary of the relevant information for that section followed by referenced reviews and abstracts that expand on or add to this information. Lists of single and multi-ingredient proprietary and non-proprietary preparations are given at the end of each monograph and, in the electronic version, these are linked to the preparations records.
Disease treatment reviews Disease treatment reviews now number over 600 and cover diseases from Acne to Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. They aim to provide a concise overview of clinical practice. They are intended to provide the reader with some helpful context to the uses described in the drug monographs, giving a clearer idea of how valuable drug treatment is in general, and the relative contribution of particular drug entities. In addition, they provide a more succinct way to summarise disease-based treatment guidelines, recommendations, and comparative studies.
Preparations It includes details of preparations from 36 countries. The information provided includes the proprietary name, manufacturer or distributor, country, active ingredients with cross-references to the drug monographs, and a summary of the indications as given by the manufacturer.
Directory of manufacturers The names of manufacturers and distributors are abbreviated. The full names are listed alphabetically in the directory of manufacturers with their full address, if available. In addition, the telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and website in each country (where available) is provided on some electronic versions.
General index This exhaustive index includes entries for drugs (aproved names, synonyms, and chemical names), preparations, pharmacological and therapeutic groups, and clinical used (disease treatment reviews).
Chapters
Analgesics, Anti-inflammatory Drugs, and Antipyretics Anthelmintics AntibacterialsAntidepressants Antidiabetics Antiepileptics Antifungals Antigout Drugs Antihistamines Antimalarials Antimigraine DrugsAntimuscarinics Antineoplastics and Immunosuppressants Antiprotozoals Antivirals Anxiolytic Sedatives Hypnotics and Antipsychotics Blood Products Plasma Expanders and Haemostatics Bone Modulating Drugs Bronchodilators and Anti-asthma Drugs Cardiovascular Drugs Chelators Antidotes and Antagonists Colouring Agents Contrast Media Corticosteroids Cough Suppressants Expectorants Mucolytics and Nasal Decongestants Dermatological Drugs
Disinfectants and Preservatives Dopaminergics Electrolytes Gases Gastrointestinal Drugs General Anaesthetics Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones Local Anaesthetics Muscle Relaxants Neuromuscular Blockers Nonionic Surfactants Nutritional Agents and Vitamins Organic Solvents Paraffins and Similar Bases Parasympathomimetics Pesticides and RepellentsProstaglandins Radiopharmaceuticals Sex Hormones Soaps and Other Anionic Surfactants Stabilising and Suspending Agents Stimulants and Anorectics Sunscreens Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs Vaccines Immunoglobulins and Antisera Supplementary Drugs and Other Substances.




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۱۳۸۷ آذر ۱۳, چهارشنبه

Matrigel Invasion Assay Protocol


Overview of Protocol

Matrigel is considered as basement membrane and generated from EHS sarcoma. Matrigel contains not only basement membrane components (collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans)but also matrix degrading enzymes/their inhibitors and growth factors. Invasion of tumor cells into Matrigel has been used to characterize involvement of ECM receptors and matrix degrading enzymes which play roles in tumor progression.



Materials

- Matrigel (Becton-****inson)
- 24-transwell (Coster)
- Fibronectin(Sigma)
- Diff-Quick staining solution (Fischer Scientific)


Protocol
1. Thaw Matrigel at 4C overnight.
2. Dilute Matrigel (5mg/ml to 1 mg/ml) in serum free-cold cell culture media (RPMI1640, EMEM, DMEM, etc).
3. Put 100 ul of the diluted matrigel into upper chamber of 24-well transwell
4. Incubate the transwell at 37C at least 4 to 5 h for gelling.
5. Harvest cells from tissue culture flasks by Trypsin/EDTA.
6. Wash the cells 3 times with culture media (RPMI1640, EMEM, DMEM etc)containing 1 % FBS.
7. Resuspend the cells in media containing 1% FBS at a density of 10^6 cells/ml.
8. Gently wash gelled matrigel with warmed serum free-culture media.
9. Put 100 ul of the cell suspension onto the matrigel.
10. lower chamber of the transwell is filled with 600 ul of culture media containing 5 ug/ml fibronectin, as an adhesive subtrate.
11. Incubate at 37C for 20 to 24 h.
12. Remove transwells from 24-well plates and stained with Diff-Quick solution.
13. Scrape off noninvaded cells on the top of the transwell with a cotton swab.
14. Count invaded cells under a light microscope.

Troubleshooting
- Need to check batch of matrigel.

- Matrigel tends to form gel very quickly at room temerature, therefore, pipets and tips using in steps 2 and 3 have to be chilled at -20C prior to experiements.

- In our experience, matrigel would not make gel under a concentration of 1 mg/ml.

- If cell make aggregation during invasion assays, reduce the density of cell suspension (at step 7).

- Invasion assays can be performed for 36 to 40h.



References
Knutson, JR., Iida, J., Fields, GB, and McCarthy, JB.
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 7: 383-396, 1996.

Protocol by Joji Iida

۱۳۸۷ آذر ۱۲, سه‌شنبه

فارماکوکینتیک Pharmacokinetics


برای آشنایی با مفاهیم فارماکوکینتیک مانند فراهمی زیستی،کلیرانس دارو،متابولیسم دارو، اثر عبور اوّل، کینتیک درجه اول و درجه صفر و مفاهیمی مانند فارماکودینامیک و فارماکوژنتیک از این سایت که به صورت انیمیشن می باشد استفاده کنید:
Interactive Clinical Pharmacology

Drug Clearance
The most important pharmacokinetic parameter. Determines maintenance dose. Saturable Metabolism
When drug concentrations exceed the capacity of metabolism.


Drug Elimination
About renal clearance and hepatic metabolism. Protein Binding
Only important in interpreting
measured drug concentrations.


Volume of Distribution
The volume into which a drug appears to be distributed. Determines loading dose. pH and Pharmacokinetics
Acids are ionized in basic media.
Bases are ionized in acidic media.


Half Life
The time for the concentration of
the drug to halve. Dosing and Age
Drug clearance and dose
requirements vary markedly throughout life.


Dosing-I.V. vs oral vs slow release
The route of drug administration influences pharmacokinetics. Drugs in Pregnancy
Effect of drugs on the pregnancy.
Effect of pregnancy on the drugs.


Oral Availability
The fraction of drug that reaches the
systemic circulation after oral ingestion. Drug Interactions
How one drug affects the concentrations or actions of another.


Pharmacodynamics
The action of the drug on the body. Drug Transport
Active transporters can help prevent some drug toxicities and aid uptake of some drugs.

Pharmacogenetics
How genes determine drug concentrations

۱۳۸۷ آذر ۱۱, دوشنبه

مکانیسم آنژیوژنز دربافت سرطانی

Indian Pharmacopoeia 1996


The latest edition of the Indian Pharmacopoeia was published in 1996. It was updated by additions and amendments introduced through addendum 2000. Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, the Indian Pharmacopoeia is the legally recognised book of standards for the quality of drug substances and their preparations included therein. In view of the rapid developments is pharmaceutical sciences and technology, it became necessary to make further changes in the existing compendium. Addendum 2002 amends as well as adds new drugs and preparations to the Indian pharmacopoeia 1996 with a view to keeping the pharmacopoeia updated to the extent possible. Besides amending the existing monographs and appendices, it contains 19 new monographs including monographs of 12 antiretroviral drugs and 7 formulations of these substances. A new appendix on residual solvents has been incorporated. Some monographs have undergone major amendments. The appendix on high performance liquid chromatography has been replaced with a new version which also includes the ion chromatography. The Addendum 2002 is a companion volume to the Indian pharmacopoeia which is indispensable for all concerned with the quality of drugs.
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Password of RAR File is : www.w5awarez.com

British National Formulary 56


Compiled with the advice of clinical experts, the British National Formulary (BNF) provides up-to-date guidance on prescribing, dispensing and administering medicines.
The BNF details medicines prescribed in the UK, with special reference to their uses, cautions, contra-indications, side-effects, dosage and relative costs.
Updated every six months, the BNF reflects current best practice as well as legal and professional guidelines relating to the use of medicines. It is intended for use by prescribers, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals.
Designed for rapid reference
Authoritative, impartial and, where available, evidence-based advice on prescribing, dispensing and administering medicines
Updated twice a year to reflect promptly changes in product availability as well as emerging safety concerns and shifts in clinical practice
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AHFS Drug Information 2008




First published in 1959, the "Big Red Book," as it's come to be known, has gone the extra mile for pharmacists and healthcare professionals seeking answers to the most detailed questions. It provides more extensive evidence-based data than any other drug reference. AHFS DI is the only reference free from the influence of manufacturers, insurers, regulators, and other special interests, giving you an unbiased source of drug information.if messages about scripts error bother you try this:first define the drug you want, than click on + to open all subfolder which lie in the medicine name direction, than click on + near folder Document Body Date - and choose AFHS Drug InformationB(2008) - if you will work in such way you will recieve only one message about error.

شبکه های علمی و دانشگاهی


برای دسترسی به بانک های علمی، شبکه های دانشگاهی، مجلات و ژورنالهای علمی می توانید از سایت های زیر برای دریافت پسوردهای شبکه هایی مانند AccessScience Blackwell Synergy Ebrary EBSCOhost JSTOR PubMed ProQuest Sciencedirect SpringerLink استفاده نمایید: